Tuesday, December 15, 2009


... god-like ...... ...He had a cruel heart, and hated all of them,Till he conceived a love for his own form:He wailed, seeing his face, delightful as a dream,Within a spring; he wept for his beauty.Then the boy shed his blood and give it to the earth... to bear

Narcissus Ovid

The Transformation of Echo

Fam'd far and near for knowing things to come,
From him th' enquiring nations sought their doom;
The fair Liriope his answers try'd,
And first th' unerring prophet justify'd.
This nymph the God Cephisus had abus'd,
With all his winding waters circumfus'd,
And on the Nereid got a lovely boy,
Whom the soft maids ev'n then beheld with joy.

The tender dame, sollicitous to know
Whether her child should reach old age or no,
Consults the sage Tiresias, who replies,
"If e'er he knows himself he surely dies."
Long liv'd the dubious mother in suspence,
'Till time unriddled all the prophet's sense.

Narcissus now his sixteenth year began,
Just turn'd of boy, and on the verge of man;
Many a friend the blooming youth caress'd,
Many a love-sick maid her flame confess'd:
Such was his pride, in vain the friend caress'd,
The love-sick maid in vain her flame confess'd.

Once, in the woods, as he pursu'd the chace,
The babbling Echo had descry'd his face;
She, who in others' words her silence breaks,
Nor speaks her self but when another speaks.
Echo was then a maid, of speech bereft,
Of wonted speech; for tho' her voice was left,
Juno a curse did on her tongue impose,
To sport with ev'ry sentence in the close.
Full often when the Goddess might have caught
Jove and her rivals in the very fault,
This nymph with subtle stories would delay
Her coming, 'till the lovers slip'd away.
The Goddess found out the deceit in time,
And then she cry'd, "That tongue, for this thy crime,
Which could so many subtle tales produce,
Shall be hereafter but of little use."
Hence 'tis she prattles in a fainter tone,
With mimick sounds, and accents not her own.

This love-sick virgin, over-joy'd to find
The boy alone, still follow'd him behind:
When glowing warmly at her near approach,
As sulphur blazes at the taper's touch,
She long'd her hidden passion to reveal,
And tell her pains, but had not words to tell:
She can't begin, but waits for the rebound,
To catch his voice, and to return the sound.

The nymph, when nothing could Narcissus move,
Still dash'd with blushes for her slighted love,
Liv'd in the shady covert of the woods,
In solitary caves and dark abodes;
Where pining wander'd the rejected fair,
'Till harrass'd out, and worn away with care,
The sounding skeleton, of blood bereft,
Besides her bones and voice had nothing left.
Her bones are petrify'd, her voice is found
In vaults, where still it doubles ev'ry sound.

The Story of Narcissus

Thus did the nymphs in vain caress the boy,
He still was lovely, but he still was coy;
When one fair virgin of the slighted train
Thus pray'd the Gods, provok'd by his disdain,
"Oh may he love like me, and love like me in vain!"
Rhamnusia pity'd the neglected fair,
And with just vengeance answer'd to her pray'r.

There stands a fountain in a darksom wood,
Nor stain'd with falling leaves nor rising mud;
Untroubled by the breath of winds it rests,
Unsully'd by the touch of men or beasts;
High bow'rs of shady trees above it grow,
And rising grass and chearful greens below.
Pleas'd with the form and coolness of the place,
And over-heated by the morning chace,
Narcissus on the grassie verdure lyes:
But whilst within the chrystal fount he tries
To quench his heat, he feels new heats arise.
For as his own bright image he survey'd,
He fell in love with the fantastick shade;
And o'er the fair resemblance hung unmov'd,
Nor knew, fond youth! it was himself he lov'd.
The well-turn'd neck and shoulders he descries,
The spacious forehead, and the sparkling eyes;
The hands that Bacchus might not scorn to show,
And hair that round Apollo's head might flow;
With all the purple youthfulness of face,
That gently blushes in the wat'ry glass.
By his own flames consum'd the lover lyes,
And gives himself the wound by which he dies.
To the cold water oft he joins his lips,
Oft catching at the beauteous shade he dips
His arms, as often from himself he slips.
Nor knows he who it is his arms pursue
With eager clasps, but loves he knows not who.

What could, fond youth, this helpless passion move?
What kindled in thee this unpity'd love?
Thy own warm blush within the water glows,
With thee the colour'd shadow comes and goes,
Its empty being on thy self relies;
Step thou aside, and the frail charmer dies.

Still o'er the fountain's wat'ry gleam he stood,
Mindless of sleep, and negligent of food;
Still view'd his face, and languish'd as he view'd.
At length he rais'd his head, and thus began
To vent his griefs, and tell the woods his pain.
"You trees," says he, "and thou surrounding grove,
Who oft have been the kindly scenes of love,
Tell me, if e'er within your shades did lye
A youth so tortur'd, so perplex'd as I?
I, who before me see the charming fair,
Whilst there he stands, and yet he stands not there:
In such a maze of love my thoughts are lost:
And yet no bulwark'd town, nor distant coast,
Preserves the beauteous youth from being seen,
No mountains rise, nor oceans flow between.
A shallow water hinders my embrace;
And yet the lovely mimick wears a face
That kindly smiles, and when I bend to join
My lips to his, he fondly bends to mine.
Hear, gentle youth, and pity my complaint,
Come from thy well, thou fair inhabitant.
My charms an easy conquest have obtain'd
O'er other hearts, by thee alone disdain'd.
But why should I despair? I'm sure he burns
With equal flames, and languishes by turns.
When-e'er I stoop, he offers at a kiss,
And when my arms I stretch, he stretches his.
His eye with pleasure on my face he keeps,
He smiles my smiles, and when I weep he weeps.
When e'er I speak, his moving lips appear
To utter something, which I cannot hear.

"Ah wretched me! I now begin too late
To find out all the long-perplex'd deceit;
It is my self I love, my self I see;
The gay delusion is a part of me.
I kindle up the fires by which I burn,
And my own beauties from the well return.
Whom should I court? how utter my complaint?
Enjoyment but produces my restraint,
And too much plenty makes me die for want.
How gladly would I from my self remove!
And at a distance set the thing I love.
My breast is warm'd with such unusual fire,
I wish him absent whom I most desire.
And now I faint with grief; my fate draws nigh;
In all the pride of blooming youth I die.
Death will the sorrows of my heart relieve.
Oh might the visionary youth survive,
I should with joy my latest breath resign!
But oh! I see his fate involv'd in mine."

This said, the weeping youth again return'd
To the clear fountain, where again he burn'd;
His tears defac'd the surface of the well,
With circle after circle, as they fell:
And now the lovely face but half appears,
O'er-run with wrinkles, and deform'd with tears.
"Ah whither," cries Narcissus, "dost thou fly?
Let me still feed the flame by which I die;
Let me still see, tho' I'm no further blest."
Then rends his garment off, and beats his breast:
His naked bosom redden'd with the blow,
In such a blush as purple clusters show,
Ere yet the sun's autumnal heats refine
Their sprightly juice, and mellow it to wine.
The glowing beauties of his breast he spies,
And with a new redoubled passion dies.
As wax dissolves, as ice begins to run,
And trickle into drops before the sun;
So melts the youth, and languishes away,
His beauty withers, and his limbs decay;
And none of those attractive charms remain,
To which the slighted Echo su'd in vain.

She saw him in his present misery,
Whom, spight of all her wrongs, she griev'd to see.
She answer'd sadly to the lover's moan,
Sigh'd back his sighs, and groan'd to ev'ry groan:
"Ah youth! belov'd in vain," Narcissus cries;
"Ah youth! belov'd in vain," the nymph replies.
"Farewel," says he; the parting sound scarce fell
From his faint lips, but she reply'd, "farewel."
Then on th' wholsome earth he gasping lyes,
'Till death shuts up those self-admiring eyes.
To the cold shades his flitting ghost retires,
And in the Stygian waves it self admires.

For him the Naiads and the Dryads mourn,
Whom the sad Echo answers in her turn;
And now the sister-nymphs prepare his urn:
When, looking for his corps, they only found
A rising stalk, with yellow blossoms crown'd.

Naucissus Pausinus

So widely different are the traditions of Hesiod himself and his poems.

[7] On the summit of Helicon is a small river called the Lamus.2 In the territory of the Thespians is a place called Donacon (Reed-bed). Here is the spring of Narcissus. They say that Narcissus looked into this water, and not understanding that he saw his own reflection, unconsciously fell in love with himself, and died of love at the spring. But it is utter stupidity to imagine that a man old enough to fall in love was incapable of distinguishing a man from a man's reflection.

[8] There is another story about Narcissus, less popular indeed than the other, but not without some support. It is said that Narcissus had a twin sister; they were exactly alike in appearance, their hair was the same, they wore similar clothes, and went hunting together. The story goes on that Narcissus fell in love with his sister, and when the girl died, would go to the spring, knowing that it was his reflection that he saw, but in spite of this knowledge finding some relief for his love in imagining that he saw, not his own reflection, but the likeness of his sister.

[9] The flower narcissus grew, in my opinion, before this, if we are to judge by the verses of Pamphos. This poet was born many years before Narcissus the Thespian, and he says that the Maid, the daughter of Demeter, was carried off when she was playing and gathering flowers, and that the flowers by which she was deceived into being carried off were not violets, but the narcissus.

Ovid's version

In Metamorphoses, Ovid tells the story of a graceful and pretty nymph named Echo who loved Narcissus in vain. Narcissus' beauty was so unmatched that he felt it was godlike in scope, comparable to the beauty of Bacchus and Apollo. As a result, Narcissus spurned Echo's affections until, despairing, she faded away to nothing but a faint, plaintive whisper. To teach the vain boy a lesson, the goddess Nemesis doomed Narcissus to fall in love with his own reflection in Echo's pond. Entranced by his own beauty and enamoured with his own image, Narcissus lay on the bank of the river and wasted away staring down into the water. Different versions of the story state that Narcissus, after scorning his male suitors, then was cursed by the gods to love the first male that he should lay his eyes on. While walking in the gardens of Echo he discovered the pond of Echo and saw a reflection of himself in the water. Falling deeply in love with himself, he leaned closer and closer to his reflection in the water, eventually falling into the pond and drowning.

Archaic version

This, a more archaic version than the one related by Ovid in his Metamorphoses, is a moral tale in which the proud and unfeeling Narcissus is punished by the gods for having spurned all his male suitors. It is thought to have been meant as a cautionary tale addressed to adolescent boys. Until recently, the only source for this version was a segment in Pausanias (9.31.7), about 150 years after Ovid. However, a very similar account was discovered among the Oxyrhynchus papyri in 2004, an account that predates Ovid's version by at least fifty years.

In this story, Ameinias, a young man, loved Narcissus but was scorned. To tell Ameinias off, Narcissus gave him a sword as a present. Ameinias used the sword to kill himself on Narcissus' doorstep and prayed to Nemesis that Narcissus would one day know the pain of unrequited love. This curse was fulfilled when Narcissus became entranced by his reflection in the pool and tried to seduce the beautiful boy, not realizing it was himself he was looking at. Completing the symmetry of the tale, Narcissus takes his sword and kills himself from sorrow.[

The new version of the Narcissus story is much more concise than Ovid’s. Ovid devotes many verses to the nymph Echo, who in her unrequited love for Narcissus wastes away until only an echo remains: she can only repeat what others say. There is no trace of her either in the papyrus text or in Conon’s account. There, Narcissus is a young boy and his lovers are all male. Ovid also distinguishes himself from the other two authors by having Narcissus, like Echo, simply waste away. His body mysteriously disappears, and when the nymphs come to collect it, they find the flower in its place. In Conon’s version, as in the new papyrus, the boy kills himself. It is his blood that produces the narcissus flower. (In this respect, the story resembles that of Adonis, told on the other side of the papyrus fragment.) In the light of the new evidence, it seems that Ovid may well have been the first to give the myth its now familiar form.

It is noteworthy in view of the fundamental role assigned to narcissism by Freud that there exists no detailed analysis of the myth which immortalized the handsome youth, Narcissus and provided psychoanalysis with so felicitous a term. Certain essential features of the myth are well-known, and these may serve as convenient initial material for analysis, the more so, as they raise certain problems of considerable importance for investigation. Narcissus, as will be recalled from the frequently cited version of the myth, was a youth of extraordinary beauty who fell in love with his image as he leaned over a pool of water. Fascinated by his own reflection, he pined away and died. There appeared in his stead the flower which bears his name. What is usually emphasized in this touching story is the extreme self-love which Narcissus manifests, the very quality which is designated by the term narcissism. But is self-love the only essential aspect of the myth? Apparently what has been less em

NARCISSUS, in Greek mythology, son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph Leiriope, distinguished for his beauty. The seer Teiresias told his mother that he would have a long life, provided he never looked upon his own features. His rejection of the love of the nymph Echo drew upon him the vengeance of the gods. Having fallen in love with his own reflection in the waters of a spring, he pined away (or killed himself) and the flower that bears his name sprang up on the spot where he died. According to Pausanias, Narcissus, to console himself for the death of a favourite twin-sister, his exact counterpart, sat gazing into the spring to recall her features by his own. Narcissus, representing the early spring-flower, which for a brief space beholds itself mirrored in the water and then fades, is one of the many youths whose premature death is recorded in Greek mythology (cf. Adonis, Linus, Hyacinthus); the flower itself was regarded as a symbol of such death. It was the last flower gathered by Persephone before she was carried off by Hades, and was sacred to Demeter and Core (the cult name of Persephone), the great goddesses of the underworld. From its associations Wieseler takes Narcissus himself to be a spirit of the underworld, of death and rest. It is possible that the story may have originated in the superstition (alluded to by Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, ii. 7) that it was an omen of death to dream of seeing one's reflection in water.


Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Christian Inheritance 2

Essay: The Christian Inheritance
Thesis: The tribes inhabiting Europe (the Celts, Britons, Picts, Goths, Vandals, Angles-Jutes-Saxons) (this study could be extended to the Eastern regions of Christianity) inherited from the colonisers of the Roman Empire and later Christian missionaries a concept of identity as part of a larger region. Small scale fighting continued, but the concept of a larger body of belonging is evident in the attitudes expressed in the crusades, laws, racism against muslims and other peoples, philosophical literature, etc. All of Europe became Catholic (except the Norsemen for a while) until the abuses of power in that church led to the protests for reform which split Europe into two religeons (which each had members everywhere, and religeous membership based on personal belief and not circumstance such as political or cultural membership).
What was the nature of the identity adopted by the Europeans when they learned Christianity? What were the uses of it's tenets and condemnations in daily life situations which would have strengthened it's validity? What ethics did it enforce, and provide authoritative validity for enforcing?What was the narrative Christians adopted with Christianity? That is, what history was now theirs. Contrasted and compared with the folk tradition and history native to their culture, were there any differences to adapt to, and how were these adaptations made and expressed? What sort of people did their history/tradition/identity as Christian people mean they must reasonably be? Does that conflict with their less-reasonable instincts? What is their purpose, goals, and future, individually and communally?
Specific Questions needed to research: (anyone reading my page please contribute)
1. What was the nature of the tribes before Christianity? The Celts (Gauls, Britons), Picts, Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Anglo-Jute-Saxons...
___Germanic and Celtic People:
___Reputation society, esteem paramount. Boasting about abilities and accomplishments. Presenting credentials as worthy. Defend himself. Taunts, refutation: enhance reputation. Desire for fame, Beowilf's Barrow. (In end of Beowulf..."no one could try. And this dragon's treasure, his gold and everything hidden in that tower, will be mine. Or war will sweep me to a bitter death."), proprietary interest in combat, others as witnesses. Revenge another aspect of personal reputation. Duty. Swearing by oaths, word bond. All great civs, in their early stages, are based on success in war
___Fear and punishment primitive? Daytoday struggle existence, nighttonight fear, darnt question, change anything
___Gift-giving: conferred status. Intrinsic value and token of esteem.
___Arts: made princely weapons as well as ornaments, as necessary to a chieftain's status (craftsmen take with them) as were bards who celebrate courage
___Banquets, revelry, tales and poems.
___Dominant figure: fighting king or chieftain; favorite pursuit: war (either X neighbors or saracens); goals: power, wealth, glory; primary virtues: valor and loyalty. Literary pattern based on actuality, of which it presents a kind of idealization. Dominant interest in B: the good ruler in contrast to the bad ruler. B: the good man who also becomes a good king. The act of benevolence, also pursuit of fame, faithfully serving, avenging, fighting, protecting, kind, mild, eager to be worthy of praise.
___Gods of nature secondary/nonexistant; principal gods tribal gods; patrons of tribes, exclusive (contrast Greco-Roman principal dieties support universe, syncretic; secondary tribal patrons. Artur bear Artemis Arcturus.
___The knight's son is a courtly lover.
___Women. Evidently Higd is in position to offer the crown to anyone.
___Gnarled old woman, cursing, prophesy.
____Superstitious rites. Human sacrifice. Vows of self-immolation. Life of a man must be paid for with the life of a man, otherwise the gods cannot be appeased. Wives in common, children belong to house woman first contracted to. Milk and flesh diet, dye with woed, long hair, shave all but head and upper lip.
___Warlike, fragmented, difficult to get agreement. Warriors with no intentions accepting the Roman's writ. "Majical inventiveness of the wild Britons" in war. At battle, black-clad women waving torches, druids waving arms. A tougher branch of Gauls. Pottery, coins.
___54AD (Boudica, flogged, daughter outraged by Nero when Claudius dies): Frenzy, upsurge of hatred, nearly all Britons within reach rallied. Colchester-Roman base- taken. Destroyed everything Roman. Slaughtered every man. "Britons happiest about looting. 70,000 Romans and Roman friends anihilated: hanging, burning, crucifying. Vengeange. 10000 Romans come and take 230000 Britons. Masacred, ancients, women, children, on hilltop. Briton now embarked on a civilized way of life, for next 350 years. Written accounts, until they leave.
___Wergild for every man, cow, sheep. Everything had price (slaves had no werguild). Better than the bloodfeud: a spiritual and temporal fairness.
___Mead hall. Think of war... success... most common failure. Romantic love hardly appears. In bleakest moments, recall return of spring.
Germanic society values. Heroic and kinship, heroic world like Homer's. King surrounds himself with band of retainers. Royal generosity. Obliged to fight to death, avenge or die in attempt. Blood vengeance a sacred duty, and in poetry an everlasting shame fail to observe. Tacitus on Germans: "To leave a battle alive after a chief has fallen means lifelong infamy and shame." The king keeps the treasure the kin protects, their only possession and defense.
___Beowulf: young warrior at beginning, old grey-haired king at end, facing the dragon and death.
___Franks: Charlemagne saved civ not too far wrong, through him Atlantic world reestablished contact w ancient culture of Med world. Like most able men who have had to educate themselves the hard way, C felt strongly the value of ed, saw the imp of an educated Italy. Once more in touch w outside world, elephant from Haroun al Rashid, sent ornamented bibles as presents all over W Eu. (Idea material substances could be made spiritual by art alone later phase thought), no longer the symbol of a wariors courage and ferocity, but is used for the glory of God (splendiferous objects, appetite for gold and wrought gem-work), make the front of the cross look worldly, and the work of a believer,
___Irish Celts: Life a passionate, all-or-nothing affair. "If I break oath with you...",
___surprising preX lit antiq preserved at all,
___Vikings: They set out from a base and with unbelieveable courage and ingenuity they got as far as Persia, via the Volga and the Caspian Sea, and they put their runic writing on one of the lions at Delos, and then returned home with all their loot... coins Samarkand Chinese Buddha.
___Huns created chaos, totally illiterate and destructively hostile to what they couldnt understand, preferred to live in prefabs and let the old places fall down, surviving things: stone stuctures? Pitifully humble and incompetant, durable habitations,
___Constantinople: untouched by wanderers, civ all right, but almost sealed off from W Eu(Greek lang, relig dif, didnt want to involve self in bloody feuds of W barbs; eastern barbs)
What was their nature afterwards?
___A new power in Eu, greater than any king or emperor. Men belong to Bishoprics. Organizer also a humanizer (THROUGH). These men know the pathos of life, and mortal things touch their hearts (Virgil)
___Regarded old revenge-system as a form of "wild justice," but revenge could not be supressed entirely, some areas expressly integrated into legal system. Rex Arturus rides goat in hell, assoc by orthodox with demon worship.
___Baptism. Church politically and economically, monasticism most important spiritual and cultural force in Europe.
___Other Roman elements come with X: ideas of law and govt, art of writing, Latin and X learning and literature. (Romanization reached climax in west only after collapse of RE.
___Conversions usually from kings and aristocrats.
___If either had achieved absolute power, soc might have grown static as civs of Eg and Byz, tension (kept alive? Eu civ)
___Many saw pagan barbarians of north, etc, outside by will of God: outside Roman Empire, Cath establisment in RE had no missionary policy for them
___devel new lands and outoftheway districts, monasteries building and churches, movement led to crusades in Spain and East, spread of partic learning and culture of the age excelled.
___Clergy composed music, developed arts; manuscript illum, woodcarving, classical lit owed to (that survived destruction of Rome by Barbs)
___recognized meaning of Christ's sacri, + able to fully to sublimate it into ritual. Consciousness of the symbolic power of the Mass.
___Church in RE: retreat from world; Church run by secular clergy, quite separate from monasteries. Ireland and north: monasteries central institutions: bases for missionary activity, centres for basic ed in Latin, book production, training of clergy, and major eco/poli centres also (as lay people donated land)
___Dissipated its strength by theological controversies—Muslims invincible solidarity
___Gregory sends Augustine: converts king Ethelberht of Kent (Wife Bertha Frankish princess X)
___English Church: best of both worlds (unlike Ireland): new connections with Rome, borrow books from Ireland and clerics go to Ireland for education. Soon: best stocked library in n Eu. Produced Bede in 8th (Europes greatest teacher and scholar)
___Fascinated by distant culture of Pagan ancestors. The old poets happiest when dealing with themes of the Germanic past. Admired courage, capable. Mixed with elegaic sympathy for its eventual doom. Distastful for Christian of that time to depict or celebrate the Germanic gods and goddesses in the manner of earlier poems. At first fits hero into pre-X ethical code, boasting, defending.
___B: a man who can live energetically according to the mores of a preconversion Germanic society and also practice the ehtical teachings of X in the conduct of his life.
___View of past: as in the Wanderer: "the old work of giants," describing the piles of stone AS could not maintain or rebuild, and had no interest in doing so either. Baths, sports, gladitorial games.
___View of present: World growing old. A declining age, close to the end of time.
Art, literature, science flourished during middle ages. Rooted in X, transmitted and transformed by classical tradition. Augustine: recognized decline of Empire but considered it secondary to instruments of salvation, the visible church and the true community of the just (City of )
___What is the Wanderer's and the Wife's Lament? Separation, exile, malice of kinfolk.
___Until 1530s (disbanding of monasteries, subsequent destruction of texts) made and held only manu-scripts, expensive--religeous (to the buisness of the church), few. A-S live oral poetry.
___Saw mandate passed from weak and heterodox Romans to powerful Catholic rulers of Germanic West.
___Inaccessible fringes of Cornwall, Ireland, Hebrides, 550 boatload of 50 scholars arrived at Cork, security modicum, hundred years X survived by clinging to places like Skellig Michael, pinnacle off Irish coast, If one couldnt read and had nothing else to look at for weeks at a time. Hypnotic effect.
2. Depict their identity and community inheritance from Rome...
___Greek 500 years satisfying, stereotyped convention, same architec lang, imagery, theatres, temples
3. What characteristics allowed for easier, or, (not necassarily also) deeper adoption of Christian identity? What clashes vinced. Depict the adoption of Christianity (the becomming Christian) of the Barbarians, and the adaptation of Christianity to the Barbarians already-held ideas and stories. Depict the differences in tribes wierding.
___Fascinated with legendary Arthur.
___Heroic ideal: Moses, St Andrew, Christ (the young hero... strong and stouthearted), God (created an "establishment of wonders", mighty deed). Cast in heroic mode, represented in style of heroic verse. St Helen, expedition to Holy Land to discover true cross "battle queen", Judith Germanic heroic poetry cast.
___Inherent conflict: heroic code / teachings: "forgive all who tresspass. Those who take up the sword..."
___A-S warrior-thane-land-king pattern, seeds of landed gentry, aristocracy.
___Literature of North especially not dominated by X hierarchy of values.
___Clovis, King of Franks. Owed some of political success to he brought his people to Catholic X (Most barbarians who settled in southern Europe Arian heretics), thus making the Franks acceptable to the Gallo-Romans he wished to rule. Church of Gaul duly grateful, offered its support to Clovis's dynasty. Gallic churchmen continued work of conversion of peasants
___Barbarian land law: often unable to donate land to X. 'Family monasteries' Abbot from founder's kin, favors granted on land. A worry for those enthusiasts who saw monast a way of escaping ties and tempts of world. Left Ireland for sake of their souls. Uninhabited Iceland.
___Franks convert Saxony as part of conquest: 772: Irminsul, sacred oak of pagan Saxons, felled. Baptism came to be regarded as affirmation of loyatly to Franks. Charlemagne: refuse baptism, or eat meat during lent, etc, insult X: death penalty. Church set up in Saxony enforced by Frankish army. This "horrific" 'conversion' of Saxons last great conquest of X in period before 900.
___Denmark, and Sweden: mission, founded churches, did not lead to lasting communities: ensuing Viking raids.
___Slavs: mission. But Greek mission of Cyril and Methodius fr. Const 863 more successful there. Brothers organized first Slavic state, churches, fortified centres. Magyars invade, collapse of Moravian state.
4. What effect on belief, certainty, and committment did the martyrs have?--the fact people gave their lives in belief of this religeon? What were the expectations on each person of what their religeon meant as far as committment?
5. What were the effects of the common morbid threat of plague, infant mortality, abuses of overlords, subsistence-level poverty on the acceptance of this religeon?
6. What effects does preaching have? Christian missionaries were the only active preachers, who would go forth to various lands to try to reqruit individual and groups of peoples.
___590's preacher Augustine sent by Gregory to bring English in line (since 450 A-S MIGRATION pushed last of Christians into mountainous Wales). Same time missionaries from Ireland preach X. Within 75 years, island predominantly X again: A-S conversion to X. Augustinian arrogant but trained clergy which will do work. (Brittons had been X like most of R.Empire since Constantine's conversion in 4th C.)
___Real process of Christianization: training of priests, preaching to people in the countryside, elimination Xization of pagan customs, teaching of X doctrines, was a process which lasted for centuries.
___Needed converts. Crucifiction not encouraging???, miracles, healings, hopeful aspects, Ascension and Resurrection. Surviving Crucifictions make no attempt to touch our emotions,
7. During conquest, what did the Romans provide to the Barbarians that their culture did not (The same for the British Empire and the American takeover of land)?
8. What did Christian unification provide? Laws, clauses?
___"Just as the Great Goddess, Danu, Anu, or Don, was the mother of the Great Tribe which we have identified as the Celts, whose people are from every race..."
___Gradual assimilation of Celtic/Germanic hero to new ends made possible by the religeous unity and authority of W.Europe.
___First half: winning people to X. Then: Crusades began. And had to be offensive in political and ideological spheres. W.Europe political disunity at max, but under leadership and direction of Church, achieved unanimity of spiritual, moral, and intellectual attitudes and ideals. Europe: community, like central nuclear force, individual countries regional manifestations of that. Students, scholars, poets, artists, clergy much travelled. X common subject matter for artists, and biblical stories had same meaning in every country, Charlemagne, Roland, Arthur, Aeneas, Troy, Thebes common. Much handled and adapted. No ideas of copyright, authorship. Anonymous.
___Political state relatively weak. Loyalties: individual, lord, code, chivalry, order, monks/friars.
___Dominant heirarchy of values based on X view of humanity. All 's. Civilization designed to assist all people to union with . Spiritual side of humanity transcends material: saint ideal. Human life judged according to scale of values.
___"The deities of the Celtic people were frequently demonized by Christian missionaries."
___Continuity. In time of enormous historical, social, and linguistic change.___Impact of X on literacy. First extended written specimen of OE code of laws promulgated by Ethelbert, first English Chrisian king.
___1381: Blackheath, Kent: renegade Lollard priest John ball gives the peasant revolt a sermon, "When Adam delved and Eve spun, were there any class distinctions?" (In the Garden, were there any class distinctions?)
___The whole sea shared a common destiny... with identical problems and general trends. A Roman lake. The R. Empire had provided political unity, law, and order to ensure the success of secular pursuits.
___Muslims: There is no God but God. Time when X arguing relationsip Song to Father and HG to the Father and Son etc. --statement anihilated phil and theological arguments, relief. Islam swept thru much of former RE and within 1 century Moors into Spain and gates of India.
___Norsemen: Oh, God, deliver us! Towers of refuge built.
___Charlemagne empire, 3 divisions. 1066 Norman conquest of Brittain. 1097 Pope Urban preaches crusades, squabbling Europe unites.
___11th 12th every young man's life: had to be warrior, knight, fighter. When war career, war games play. Jousting, battling, ladies watching, each goes into battle wearing his lady's scarf under helmet.

Wednesday, December 2, 2009

History of Lear, from Geoffery of Monmouth

From: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/episodes/king-lear/background-on-king-lear/sources-for-king-lear/from-geoffrey-of-monmouth/638/

When Bladud was thus given over to the destinies, his son Lear was next raised to the kingdom, and ruled the country after manly fashion for three-score years. He it was that builded the city on the river Soar, that in the British is called Kaerleir, but in the Saxon, Leicester. Male issue was denied unto him, his only children being three daughters named Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia, whom all he did love with marvelous affection, her most of all the youngest born, to wit, Cordelia. And when that he began to be upon the verge of eld, He thought to divide his kingdom amongst them, and to marry them unto such husbands as were worthy to have them along with their share of the kingdom. But that he might know which of them was most worthy of the largest share, he went unto them to make inquiry of each as to which of them did most love himself.
When, accordingly, he asked of Goneril how much she loved him, she first called all the gods of heaven to witness that her father was dearer to her heart than the very soul that dwelt within her body. Unto whom saith her father: “For this, that thou hast set mine old age before thine own life, thee, my dearest daughter, will I marry unto whatsoever youth shall be thy choice, together with the third part of Britain.” Next, Regan, that was second, fain to take ensample of her sister and to wheedle her father into doing her an equal kindness, made answer with a solemn oath that she could no otherwise express her thought than by saying that she loved him better than all the world beside. The credulous father thereupon promised to marry her with the same dignity as her elder sister, with another third part of the kingdom for her share.
But the last, Cordelia, when she saw how her father had been cajoled by the flatteries of her sisters who had already spoken and desiring to make trial of him otherwise, went on to make answer unto him thus: “Father mine, is there a daughter anywhere that presumeth to love her father more than a father? None such, I trow, there is that durst confess as much, save she were trying to hide the truth in words of jest. For myself, I have ever loved thee as a father, nor never from that love will I be turned aside. Albeit that thou are bent on wringing more from me, yet hearken to the true measure of my love. Ask of me no more, but let this be mine answer: So much as thou hast, so much art thou worth, and so much do I love thee.”
Thereupon forthwith, her father, thinking that she had thus spoken out of the abundance of her heart, waxed mightily indignant, nor did he tarry to make known what his answer would be. “For that thou hast so despised thy father’s old age that thou hast disdained to love me, even as well as these, thy sisters love me, I also will disdain thee, nor never in my realm shalt thou have share with thy sisters. Howbeit, sith that thou art my daughter, I say not but that I will marry thee upon terms of some kind, unto some stranger that is of other land than mine, if so be that fortune shall offer such an one; only be sure of this, that never will I trouble me to marry thee with such honour as thy sisters, inasmuch as, whereas up to this time I have loved thee better than the others, it now seemeth that thou lovest me less than they.”
Straightway thereupon, by counsel of the nobles of the realm, he giveth the twain sisters unto two Dukes, of Cornwall, to wit, and Scotland, together with one moiety only of the island so long as he should live, but after his death he willed that they should have the whole of the kingdom of Britain. Now it fell out about this time that Aganippus, King of the Franks, hearing report of Cordelia’s beauty, forthwith dispatched his envoys to the King, beseeching him that Cordelia might be entrusted to their charge as his bride whom he would marry with due rite of the wedding torch. But her father, still persisting in his wrath, made answer that right willingly would he give her, but that needs must it be without land or fee, seeing that he had shared is kingdom along with all his gold and silver betwixt Cordelia’s sisters Goneril and Regan. When this word was brought unto Aganippus, for that he was on fire with love of the damsel, he sent again unto King Lear saying that enow had he of gold and silver and other possessions, for that one-third part of Gaul was his, and that he was fain to marry the damsel only that he might have sons by her to inherit his land. So at last the bargain was struck, and Cordelia was sent to Gaul to be married unto Aganippus.
Some long time after, when Lear began to wax more sluggish by reason of age, the foresaid Dukes, with whom and his two daughters he had divided Britain, rebelled against him and took away from him the realm and the kingly power which up to that time he had held right manfully and gloriously. Howbeit, concord was restored, and one of his sons-in-law, Maglaunus, Duke of Scotland, agreed to maintain him with forty knights, so that he should not be without some semblance of state. But after that he had sojourned with his son-in-law two years, his daughter Goneril began to wax indignant at the number of his knights, who flung gibes at her servants for that their rations were not more plentiful. Whereupon, after speaking to her husband, she ordered her father to be content with a service of twenty knights and to dismiss the others that he had.
The King, taking dudgeon, left Maglaunus, and betook him to Henvin, Duke of Cornwall, unto whom he had married his other daughter, Regan. Here, at first, he was received with honour, but a year had not passed before discord again arose betwixt those of the King’s household and those of the Duke’s, inasmuch as that Regan, waxing indignant, ordered her father to dismiss all his company save five knights only to do him service. Her father, beyond measure aggrieved thereat, returned once more to his eldest daughter, thinking to move her to pity and to persuade her to maintain himself and his retinue.
Howbeit, she had never renounced her first indignation, but swore by all the gods of Heaven that never should he take up his abode with her save he contented himself with the service of a single knight and were quit of all the rest. Moreover, she upbraided the old man for that, having nothing of his own to give away, he should be minded to go about with such a retinue; so that finding she would not give way to his wishes one single tittle, he at last obeyed and remained content with one knight only, leaving the rest to go their way.
But when the remembrance of his former dignity came back unto him, bearing witness to the misery of the state to which he was now reduced, he began to bethink him of going to his youngest daughter overseas. Howbeit, he sore misdoubted that she would do nought for him, seeing that he had held her, as I have said, in such scanty honour in the matter of her marriage. Nonetheless, disdaining any longer to endure so mean a life, he betook him across the Channel into Gaul. But when he found that two other princes were making the passage at the same time, and that he himself had been assigned but the third pace, he brake forth into tears and sobbing, and cried aloud:
“Ye destinies that do pursue your wonted way marked out by irrevocable decree, wherefore was it your will ever to uplift me to happiness so fleeting? For a keener grief it is to call to mind that lost happiness than to suffer the presence of the unhappiness that cometh after. For the memory of the days when in the midst of hundreds of thousands of warriors I went to batter down the walls of cities and to lay waste the provinces of mine enemies is more grievous unto me than the calamity that hath overtaken me in the meanness of mine estate, which hath incited them that but now were groveling under my feet to desert my feebleness. O angry fortune! will the day ever come wherein I may requite the evil turn that hath thus driven forth the length of my days and my poverty? O Cordelia, my daughter, how true were the words wherein thou didst make answer unto me, when I did ask of thee how much thou didst love me! For thou saidst, ‘So much as thou hast, so much art thou worth, and so much do I love thee.’ So long, therefore, as I had that which was mine own to give, so long seemed I of worth unto them that were the lovers, not of myself but of my gifts. They loved me at times, but better loved they the presents I made unto them. Now that the presents are no longer forthcoming, they too have gone their ways. But with what face, O thou dearest of my children, shall I dare appear before thee, I who, wroth with thee for these thy words, was minded to marry thee less honorably than thy sisters, who, after all the kindnesses I have conferred upon them, have allowed me to become an outcast and a beggar?”
Landing at last, his mind filled with these reflections and others of a like kind, he came to Karitia, where his daughter lived, and waiting without the city, sent a messenger to tell her into what indigence he had fallen, and to beseech his daughter’s compassion inasmuch as he had neither food nor clothing. On hearing the tidings, Cordelia was much moved and wept bitterly. When she made inquiry how many armed men he had with him, the messengers told her that he had none save a single knight, who was waiting with him without the city. She commanded also that he should have a retinue of forty knights well appointed and armed, and that then he should duly announce his arrival to Aganippus and herself. The messenger accordingly forthwith attended King Lear into another city, and hid him there in secret until that he had fully accomplished all that Cordelia had borne him on hand to do.
As soon therefore, as he was meetly arrayed in kingly apparel and invested with the ensigns of royalty, and a train of retainers, he sent word unto Aganippus and his daughter that he had been driven out of the realm of Britain by his sons-in-law, and had come unto them in order that by their assistance he might be able to recover his kingdom. They accordingly, with the great counselors and nobles, came forth to receive him with all honour, and placed in his hands the power over the whole of Gaul until such time as they had restored him unto his former dignity.
In the meanwhile, Aganippus sent envoys throughout the whole of Gaul to summon every knight baring arms therein to spare no pains in coming to help him to recover the kingdom of Britain for his father-in-law, King Lear. When they had all made them ready, Lear led the assembled host together with Aganippus and his daughter into Britain, fought a battle with his sons-in-law, and won the victory, again bringing them all under his own dominion. In the third year thereafter he died, and Aganippus died also, and Cordelia, now mistress of the helm of state in Britain, buried her father in a certain underground chamber which she had bidden be made under the river Soar at Leicester. This underground chamber was founded in honour of the two-faced Janus, and there, when the yearly celebration of the day came round, did all the workmen of the city set hand unto such work as they were about to be busied upon throughout the year.
Now, when Cordelia had governed the kingdom in peace for five years, two sons of her sisters began to harass her, Margan, to wit, and Cunedag, that had been born unto the Dukes Maglaunus and Henvin, both of them youths of notable likelihood and prowess, Margan being son of Maglaunus and Cunedag of Henvin. These, after the deaths of their fathers, had succeeded them in their dukedoms, and now took it in high dudgeon that Britain should be subject to the rule of a woman. They therefore assembled their hosts and rebelled against the Queen, nor were they minded to put an end to their outrages until after laying waste a number of provinces, they had defeated her in several battles, and had at last taken her and put her in prison, wherein, overwhelmed with grief for the loss of her kingdom, she slew herself.
Forthwith the youths divided the island between them, whereof that part which stretcheth from the Humber towards Caithness fell to Margan’s share, and the other, on the other side of the river, that vergeth toward the West, was allotted to Cunedag. After the space of two years, certain of them that rejoiced in making disturbance in the realm, joined them with Margan and began to tempt him to walk in crooked paths, saying that foul shame it was he, the eldest born, should not have dominion over the whole island; so that, what with this and other grievances, they at last egged him on to march with an army into Cunedag’s territories, and thus began to heap fuel on the fire they had kindled. On the war breaking out, Cunedag with all his host marched out to meet him, and in the battle that was fought inflicted no small slaughter, driving Margan in flight before him, and afterwards following his flight from province to province, until at last he overtook and slew him in a village of Wales, which after that Margan was slain there hath been called by his name, Margan to wit, ever since by the country folk even unto this day. Cunedag, accordingly, having won the victory, possessed himself of the monarchy of the whole island and governed the same gloriously for three and thirty years.
(At that time Isaiah and Hosea prophesied, and Rome was founded the eleventh of the *Kalends of May by the twin-brethren, Romulus and Remus.)
Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100—c. 1155), an English bishop and scholar, wrote what he called a translation of an ancient history of English kings which told largely legendary stories of English kings from the original Brutus, held to be a descendant of the Greek founder of Rome, Aeneas, through the seventh century AD Cadwallader. It includes the earliest extensive treatment of King Arthur. He wrote an independent treatise on Merlin. His early kings included Leir and Gorbuduc, both of whom divided their kingdoms among their children with disastrous consequences.
After leading his country for 60 years, Leir, without male issue, decides to divide his kingdom among his three daughters, that they might attract thereby the most suitable husbands to rule the segments. He proposes a love test to judge their worthiness. After Goneril and Regan flatter him outrageously, Cordelia promises no more than her natural love for her father. Angry, he dispossesses her, marries Goneril to Maglaunus, Duke of Scotland and Regan to Henvin, Duke of Cornwall, grants them some portion of the country, but keeps half for himself, promising it to them when he dies. Meanwhile, Aganippus of France, hearing of Cordelia’s beauty, decides to take her regardless of her dower-less status.
As Leir grows more sluggish, his two sons-in-law usurp his half, but, to smooth the pain, agree to maintain him with forty knights. But after two years living with Maglaunus and Goneril, Leir is reduced to twenty knights because they complain too much. Affronted, Lier moves to Regan’s, who after a year reduces him to ten. Goneril then reduces him to one when he returns to her. Aggrieved, he swallows his pride and moves to France, suffering the further indignity of third place behind his sons-in-law who circumstantially make the same journey. Learning of his arrival, Cordelia forgives Leir, restores his forty knights and regalia, and hides him in another city until he has regained his regal bearing. Royally fit, he meets Aganippus, tells him that he was driven out of England, and comes in hopes of aid in recovering his lost lands. Aganippus raises the necessary army, and with Leir and Cordelia leads it to victory over Leir’s renegade children. However, three years later Leir and Aganippus both die, leaving the realm to Cordelia. Five years later, the sons of her sisters, now Dukes themselves after the deaths of their fathers, find it not fit to be ruled by a woman, and rise up and usurp her crown. In prison, overwhelmed with grief, Cordelia takes her own life.

Lear of History, from Holinshed

(Where in the Holinshed is Lear? second book, chaps. v, vi.)
(Holinshed’s narrative follows essentially the same lines as Geoffrey of Monmouth. It omits the detail about the daughter’s reducing Leir’s knights, leaving their abuse in generality, measure’s Leir’s reign as 40 years, not 60, and makes the deaths of Cornwall and Scotland specifically during the incursion.)
The text translated at http://www.pbs.org/wnet/gperf/episodes/king-lear/background-on-king-lear/sources-for-king-lear/holinshed-chronicles/640/
Leir the sonne of Baldud, was admitted ruler ouer the Britaines, in the yeere of the world 3105, at what time Ioas raigned as yet in Iuda. This Leir was a prince of right noble demeanor, gouerning his land and subiects in great wealth. He made the towne of Caerlier nowe called Leicester, which standeth vpon the riuer of Sore. It is written that he had by his wife three daughters without other issue, whose names were Gonorilla, Regan, and Cordeilla, which daughters he greatly loued, but specially Cordeilla the yoongest farre aboue the two elder. When this Leir therefore was come to great yeeres, & began to waxe vnweldie through age, he thought to vnderstand the affections of his daughters towards him, and preferre hir whome he best loued, to the succession ouer the kingdome. Whervpon he first asked Gonorilla the eldest, how well shee loued him: who calling hir gods to record, protested, that she loued him more than hir owne life, which by right and reason shoulde be most deere vnto hir. With which answer the father being well pleased, turned to the second, and demanded of hir how well she loued him: who answered (confirming hir saiengs with great othes) that she loued him more than toung could expresse, and farre aboue all other creatures of the world
Then called he his yoongest daughter Cordeilla before him, and asked of hir what account she made of him: vnto whome she made this answer as followeth: Knowing the great loue and fatherlie zeale that you haue always borne towards me, (for the which I maie not answere you otherwise than I thinke, and as my conscience leadeth me) I protest vnto you, that I haue loued you euer, and will continuallie (while I liue) loue you as my naturall father. And if you would more vnderstand of the loue that I beare you, assertaine your selfe, that so much as you haue, so much you are worth, and so much I loue you, and no more. The father being nothing content with this answer, married his two eldest daughters, the one vnto Henninus, the Duke of Cornewal, and the other vnto Maglanus, the Duke of Albania, betwixt whome he willed and ordeined that his land should be deuided after his death, and the one halfe thereof immediatelie should be assigned to them in hand: but for the third daughter Cordeilla he reserued nothing.
Neuertheles it fortuned that one of the princes of Gallia (which now is called France) whose name was Aganippus, hearing of the beautie, womanhood, and good conditions of the said Cordeilla, desired to haue hir in mariage, and sent ouer to hir father, requiring that he mighte haue hir to wife: to whome answere was made, that he might haue his daughter, but as for anie dower he could haue none, for all was promised and assured to hir other sisters alreadie. Aganippus notwithstanding this answer of deniall to receiue anie thing by way of dower with Cordeilla, tooke hir to wife, onlie moued thereto (I saie) for respect of hir person and amiable vertues. This Aganippus was one of the twelue kings that ruled Gallia in those daies, as in the Brittish historie it is recorded. But to proceed.
After that Leir was fallen into age, the two dukes that had married his two eldest daughters, thinking long yer the gouernment of the land did come to their hands, arose against him in armour, and reft from him the gouernance of the land, vpon conditions to be continued for terme of life: by the which he was put to his portion, that is, to liue after a rate assigned to him for the maintenance of his estate, which in processe of time was diminished as well by Maglanus as by Henninus. But the greatest griefe that Leir tooke, was to see the vnkindnesse of his daughters, which seemed to thinke that all was too much which their father had, the same being neuer so little: in so much, that going from the one to the other, he was brought to that miserie, that scarslie they would allow him one seruaunt to waite upon him.
In the end, such was the vnkindnesse, or (as I maie saie) the vnnaturalnesse which he found in his two daughters, notwithstanding their faire and pleasant words vttered in time past, that being constreined of necessitie, he fled the land, and sailed into Gallia, there to seeke some comfort of his youngest daughter Cordeilla whom before time he hated. The ladie Cordeilla hearing that he was arriued in poore estate, she first sent to him priuilie a certeine summe of monie to apparell himselfe withall, and to reteine a certein number of seruants that might attende vpon him in honorable wise, as apperteined to the estate which he had borne: and then so accompanied, she appointed him to come to the court, which he did, and was so ioifullie, honorablie, and louinglie receiued, both by his sonne in law Aganippus, and also by his daughter Cordeilla, that his hart was greatlie comforted: for he was no lesse honored, than if he had beene king of the whole Countrie himselfe.
Now when he had informed his son in law and his daughter in what sort he had beene vsed by his other daughters, Aganippus caused a mightie armie to be put in readinesse, and likewise a greate nauie of ships to be rigged, to passe ouer into Britaine with Leir his father in law, to see him againe restored to his kingdome. It was accorded, that Cordeilla should also go with him to take possession of the land, the which he promised to leaue vnto hir, as the rightfull inheritour after his decesse, notwithstanding any former grant made to hir sisters or to their husbands in anie maner of wise.
Herevpon, when this armie and nauie of ships were readie, Leir and his daughter Cordeilla with hir husband tooke the sea, and arriuing in Britaine, fought with their enimies, and discomfited them in battell, in the which Maglanus and Henninus were slaine: and then was Leir restored to his kingdome, which he ruled after this by the space of two yeeres, and then died, fortie yeeres after he first began to reigne. His bodie was buried at Leicester in a vaut vnder the chanell of the Riuer of Sore beneath the towne.
Cordeilla, the yoongest daughter of Leir was admitted Q. and supreme gouernesse of Britaine, in the yeere of the world 3155, before the bylding of Rome 54, Uzia was then reigning in Juda, and Jeroboam ouer Israell. This Cordeilla after hir father’s deceasse ruled the land of Britaine right worthilie during the space of fiue yeeres, in which meane time hir husband died, and then about the end of those fiue yeeres, hir two nephewes Margan and Cunedag, sonnes to hir aforesaid sisters, disdaining to be vnder the gouernment of a woman, leuied warre against hir, and destroied a great part of the land, and finallie tooke hir prisoner, and laid hir fast in ward, wherewith she tooke suche griefe, being a woman of a manlie courage, and despairing to recouer libertie, there she slue hirselfe ‘
Raphael Holinshed (died c. 1580) is one of the mysterious souls from the English Renaissance who left a lasting mark but almost no other trace of himself. He published in 1577 the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, a massive compilation of history and myth that served among other purposes to furnish Shakespeare with whatever factual basis he used for his history plays, and two of his tragedies—Macbeth and King Lear. His will was attested on 24 April 1582, but it is generally believed he died some years earlier. Otherwise, his life, ironically, was not chronicled.

White Tits

Can be found almost everywhere, in fields, on hillsides, on mountainsides, on golf courses, village greens, sports fields, and gardens. They prefer a south facing slope with wet soil.
DESCRIPTION: This fungi is known for its 'Breast or Tit' like shape. The mushroom has a crooked stem with a cone shaped cap, with a nipple in the middle. Grows in clumps sometimes hundreds per square meter. Is a brown colour when first out, fading to a yellow then to a Gold or golden yellow when dry. Life span is from 3 to 4 days with more coming up to replace those that die.
FLOWERING PERIOD : Can be found on mountain tops from the end of July if it has been a wet year. Will spread down into the low lands as the ground get wetter from August onwards. The mushroom will move down off the mountain side and hillsides into the low lands as the climate gets colder to go completely with the first frost. Around the middle of October. Can sometime continue to be found in low-land areas up until the middle of November if it is a mild Autumn.
When picking, the stem should be cut so as the removal of the root does not take place. All the fungi in an area are a few oraginisms which is mainly the root systems and damage can cause the death of the root system and therfore the loss of the fungi over a large area.

Carry some dried liberty caps to attract lovers.

From: http://www.shee-eire.com/Herbs,Trees&Fungi/Fungus/Fly-agaric/main.htm